The Scherzo op. 4 was written in 1851 – Brahms was not even 20 years old – and was a kind of calling card with which the young composer and pianist introduced himself to influential musicians. He also played the Scherzo to the Schumanns several times in 1853, and thus might have inspired his older colleague to write the famous article “Neue Bahnen” (New Ways). In it, Schumann praised “single piano pieces, some of them turbulent in spirit while graceful in form”. We are publishing the work that has until now only been available in the volume HN 38 in a single edition. It has recently been revised following the musical text of the new Brahms Complete Edition and now also contains new fingerings by Andreas Boyde.