"Aegukga" (Korean: 애국가, lit. "Love Country Song"), often translated as "The Patriotic Song", is the national anthemof South Korea. It was adopted in 1948, the year the country was founded. Its music was composed in the 1930s and its lyrics date back to the 1890s. The lyrics of "Aegukga" were originally set to the music of the Scottish song "Auld Lang Syne" before a unique melody was composed specifically for it. Before the founding of South Korea, the song's lyrics, set to the music of "Auld Lang Syne", was used as the national anthem of the Korean exile governmentwhich existed during Korea's occupation by Imperial Japan from the 1910s to the mid-1940s. The song has four verses, but in most occasions only the first one is sung when performed publicly in South Korea.
The Encyclopedia of Korean Culturedefines "Aegukga" as "the song to wake up the mind to love the country". "Aegukga" in itself is differentiated from a national anthem. While a national anthem or gukgais an official symbol of the state, aegukgarefers to any song, official or unofficial, that contains patriotic fervor towards its country, such as Hungary's "Szózat" or the U.S. "The Stars and Stripes Forever". However, the nationally designated "Aegukga" plays the role of symbolizing the country.In general shorthand, the term aegukgarefers to the national anthemof South Korea.Nevertheless, there are still more than ten other extant "Aegukgas" in South Korea.
In the 1890s, the previously established Joseondynasty began to contact other countries for the first time, including the United States, United Kingdom, and Russia. The meeting with foreign countries gave rise to patriotism, which then created several "Aegugkas". For instance, works in 1896 includes "Aeguka" created by Na Pil-gun, Han Myung-one, and Lee Yong-mu.On November 21, 1896, scholars from the Pai Chai schoolsang a version of "Aegukga" in the independence door ceremony. However, this song differs from the song sung by the Military Academyin 1898 and from the songs sung on the birthday of the former emperor.
However, a book from the Korean Empirein 1900 has a record of a national anthem. It was called the "Korean Empire Aegukga", or literally the "Anthem of the Greater Korean Empire". The anthem is commonly believed to be written by Franz Eckert.Some people contend that records documenting Franz Eckert's actions show that it was physically impossible for him to write the anthem. It is guessed that the song sung by the Paejae school was the Scottish song "Auld Lang Syne" and that the song sung by the Military Academy is a version of the British song "God Save the Queen".
The song attributed to Eckert was established by the military in 1902. A version of Eckert's song with different lyrics began to be officially implemented in the schools in 1904. All the schools were forced to sing the version of the song. The policy is thought of as a by-product of the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905and the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1907.
There are many theories concerning the writer of the currently official lyrics of "Aegukga". It is most commonly believed that the lyrics were written for the cornerstone-laying ceremony of the Independence Gatein Seoul in 1896 by Yun Chi-ho, a Korean politician.Later, Kim Guduring the Korean exile governmentera, said to his comrades "In the March 1st Movement, we had the Taegeukgiand the Aegukga. Why who wrote it should be an issue?" said Kim. "The lyrics and the anthem's spirit are more important than the nature of the lyricist.", he refuted.Other theories name the lyricist as An Chang-ho, Choi Byung-hun, Kim In-sik, Min Yeong-hwan, or some combination of the aforementioned writers. The "Committee to search for the composer of 'Aegukga'" was established in 1955 by the government on the request of the United States, but the committee concluded that there was not enough evidence to name a lyricist.
Initially, "Aegukga" was sung to the tune of the Scottish folk song "Auld Lang Syne", introduced to Korea by westernmissionaries. The Provisional Korean Government(1919–1945) in Shanghai, Chinaadopted it as their national anthem. At a ceremony celebrating the founding of South Korea on 15 August 1948, the Scottish tune was finally replaced by the Finale of "Korea Fantasia", which Ahn Eak-taihad composed in 1935. The new "Aegukga" was later adopted by the Presidential Decreeof 1948 by the then South Korean President Syngman Rhee(or Lee Seungman).
Since the composer Ahn Eak-taidied in 1965, the copyrightfor the music was to not expire until at least 2036. Two South Korean professional football clubs were sued by a copyright holders' group for playing this song in December 2003.However, on March 16, 2005, the composer's widow—Lolita Ahn—and her family relinquished all rights to "Aegukga" to the South Korean government."Aegukga" has since become a public domainsong.
The South Korean national anthem's lyrics have been criticized by some as being too focused on racial nationalism instead of civic republicanism,thus festering patriotism towards a "Korean race" rather than the South Korean state itself,possibly endangering South Korea's national security in the face of a North Korean threat.
|第1段||동해물과 백두산이 마르고 닳도록
하느님이 보우하사 우리 나라만세
|東海물과 白頭山이 마르고 닳도록
하느님이 保佑하사 우리 나라萬歲
|Donghaemulgwa Baekdusani mareugo daltorok
Haneunimi bouhasa uri naramanse
|第2段||남산 위에 저 소나무 철갑을 두른 듯
바람 서리 불변함은 우리 기상일세
|南山 위에 저 소나무 鐵甲을 두른 듯
바람 서리 不變함은 우리 氣相일세
|Namsan wie jeo sonamu cheolgabeul dureun deut
Baram seori bulbyeonhameun uri gisang-ilse
|第3段||가을 하늘 공활한데 높고 구름 없이
밝은 달은 우리 가슴 일편단심일세
|가을 하늘 空豁한데 높고 구름 없이
밝은 달은 우리 가슴 一片丹心일세
|Gaeul haneul gonghwalhande nopgo gureum eobsi
Balgeun dareun uri gaseum ilpyeondansimilse
|第4段||이 기상과 이 맘으로 충성을 다하여
괴로우나 즐거우나 나라 사랑하세
|이 氣像과 이 맘으로 忠誠을 다하여
괴로우나 즐거우나 나라 사랑하세
|I gisanggwa i mameuro chungseong-eul dahayeo
Goerouna jeulgeouna nara saranghase
|副歌||무궁화 삼천리 화려강산
대한사람 대한으로 길이 보전하세
|無窮花 三千里 華麗江山
大韓사람 大韓으로 길이 保全하세
|Mugunghwa samcheolli hwaryeogangsan
Daehansaram Daehaneuro giri bojeonhase